The Grand Theatre - National Opera in Warsaw
Opera was imported to Poland by Prince Ladislaus IV Vasa (Wladyslaw IV Waza) a mere twenty years after this art form first appeared in Florence. In 1628 he invited an Italian opera troupe to perform in Warsaw. When he ascended to the Polish throne in 1632, he created a theatre at the Royal Castle and commissioned an Italian troupe under the direction of Marco Scacchi to offer regular operatic performances there.
Towards the end of the 17th century, John III Sobieski (Jan III Sobieski) revived presentations of operas, and these were subsequently supported by King Augustus II, known as "The Strong", and by King Augustus III, who commissioned the construction in Warsaw of the city's first operatic building, the so-called Opernhaus. Opera, theatre and ballet then truly flourished in Poland during the reign of King Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski (Stanislaw August Poniatowski – 1764-1795).
Beginning in 1774, productions of operas, theatrical plays and ballets were mounted at the Radziwill Palace on Krakowskie Przedmiescie (currently the Presidential Palace). It was there that on July 11, 1778, the first-ever premiere of a Polish opera featuring Polish actors took place. This was a production of Maciej Kamienski's NEDZA USZCZESLIWIONA / MISERY MADE HAPPY, with a libretto by Wojciech Boguslawski based on a comedy by Franciszek Bohomolec. This is considered the moment at which the Polish national opera was born.
In the years 1779-1833 performances were held on Plac Krasinskich (Krasinski Square) in a newly erected theatre that in time came to be called the National Theatre. It was on this stage that exceptional actor, singer, director, playwright and entrepreneur Wojciech Boguslawski developed his craft and talents. Boguslawski is now considered the father of the national theatre. It was also here that in 1785 the Polish ensemble Tancerze Jego Krolewskiej Mosci (The Dancers of His Royal Highness) initiated its activities under the guidance of ballet masters Francois Gabriel Le Doux of Paris and Daniel Curz of Venice. This Warsaw-based ballet troupe achieved pan-European renown a short time later.
The Grand Theatre has been Poland's representational operatic and ballet stage for over one hundred sixty years. This building, constructed in the years 1825-1833 according to a design by Italian architect Antonio Corazzi of Livorno, was intended as the seat of the national opera, ballet and theatre ensembles already active in Warsaw. The first performance in the newly opened theatre, held on February 24, 1833, was a production of Gioacchino Rossini's THE BARBER OF SEVILLE.
The building was subsequently modified a number of times. While Poland remained partitioned between its three neighboring powers, Russia, Prussia and Austro-Hungary (1795-1918), the edifice played a significant cultural and political role. It was home to productions of works by Polish composers and choreographers and the site of the world premieres of two exceptional operatic works by Stanislaw Moniuszko: the full version of HALKA (1858) and STRASZNY DWOR / THE HAUNTED MANOR (1865). It was also here that Italian choreographer Virgilius Calori first staged the ballet PAN TWARDOWSKI / MASTER TWARDOWSKI (1874). Initially according to a musical arrangement by Adolf Sonnenfeld and later one by Ludomir Rozycki, this ballet went on to dominate the national ballet repertoire for many years. The building was also home to productions of the operas of Wladyslaw Zelenski, Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Karol Szymanowski and other Polish composers, as well as the ballets of Roman Turczynowicz, Piotr Zajlich, Feliks Parnell and other Polish choreographers. For many years, the Grand Theatre also hosted guest productions of the most important titles from the world opera and ballet repertoires. The most exceptional Polish and foreign singers and dancers performed on its stage.
From 1945 the 1965 the ensemble of the Grand Theatre performed on other stages while the building, destroyed during World War II, was rebuilt and expanded according to a design by Bohdan Pniewski. Reconstruction proceeded under the eye of Arnold Szyfman. A gala concert inaugurating the re-opening of the theatre was held on November 19, 1965. In its new form, the Grand Theatre proved to be one of the most impressive and best-equipped theatres in Europe, its machines and devices were seen as the peak of innovation in the realm of theatre technology.
The National Opera continues to cultivate its legacy of more than two hundred year at the Grand Theatre, mounting productions of the works of Polish composers from Karol Kurpinski, through Stanislaw Moniuszko, to Krzysztof Penderecki. The classical world repertoire is represented at the institution by productions of the most admired operas by such composers as Beethoven, Bellini, Berg, Bizet, Borodin, Czajkowski, Donizetti, Gounod, Massenet, Mozart, Offenbach, Prokofiew, Puccini, Rossini, Richard Strauss, Szostakowicz, Verdi and Wagner (including his famed PIERSCIEN NIBELUNGA / RING CYCLE).
Warsaw's ballet troupe has worked under the eye of such masters as Adret, Alicia Alonso, Béjart, Butler, Cullberg, Grigorowicz, Lacotte, Lazzini, Lifar, van Manen, Massine jr, Méndez, Messerer, Neumeier, Rodrigues, Siergiejew, Walter, Winogradow, Yuriko, as well as many excellent Polish choreographers, from Leon Wojcikowski, Stanislaw Miszczyk and Witold Gruca to Emil Wesolowski.
Polish Music Information Center
Polish Composers' Union