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Henryk Mikołaj Górecki

Henryk Mikołaj Górecki, 1933, fot. Chris Niedenthal / FORUM
Henryk Mikołaj Górecki, 1933, photo: Chris Niedenthal / FORUM

Composer, born on 6th December 1933 in Czernica, near Rybnik, died on 12th November 2010 in Katowice.


He began his formal study of music in 1952 in the pedagogical department of the Music High School in Rybnik. Later, he studied composition under Bolesław Szabelski, at the State Academy of Music (known today as the Academy of Music) in Katowice (1955-60). On 27 February 1958, a concert of Górecki's own work took place, the first such concert devoted to the work of just one student in the history of that school. Five pieces were performed for the first time at that concert, including the first version of Songs of Joy and Rhythm, op. 7, (Pieśni o radości i rytmie op. 7) for two pianos and chamber orchestra (1956) and Concerto for five instruments and string quartet, op. 11 (1957).

That same year, he debuted at the Warsaw Autumn (Warszawska Jesień) International Festival of Contemporary Music, where his Epitafium, op. 12, for mixed choir and instrumental ensemble (1958) was performed. Thanks to that work, Górecki became known as one of Poland's most radical avantgarde composers. In 1960, he graduated from the Academy with honours. That same year, his Monologhi, op. 16, for soprano and three instrumental groups (1960) won First Prize at the Young Polish Composers Competition. At the Warsaw Autumn Festival, on 21 September 1960, his Scontri (Collisions), op. 17, for orchestra (1960), caused a sensation. In 1961, Górecki was active in Paris, where his First Symphony, op. 14 (1959) won First Prize at the Youth Biennale. In Paris, he met with Pierre Boulez, and in Cologne, with Karlheinz Stockhausen.

 


In 1965, Górecki began to work at the Academy of Music in Katowice, in 1968 as a lecturer, and in 1972 as an assistant professor; he taught score-reading, orchestration and composition. In 1973-74, thanks to the support of the Akademischer Austauschdienst (German Academic Exchange Service), he spent time in Berlin. In 1975, he was rector of the Academy of Music in Katowice; he held this position for four years. In 1977, he was granted the title of assistant professor. Among his students were Eugeniusz Knapik, Andrzej Krzanowski and Rafal Augustyn. He married Jadwiga Rurańska, a pianist, and has two children - Anna, who is a pianist, and a son, Mikołaj, who is a composer.

 


Henryk Mikołaj Górecki began his career as an extremely avantgarde composer. His work Scontri, performed for the first time at the "Warsaw Autumn" International Festival of Contemporary Music in 1960 challenged audiences and became a symbol of the Polish musical avant garde with its shocking modernity. In 1976, Górecki produced yet another challenge in the shape of his Third Symphony, Symphony of Lamentation Songs, also performed at the Warsaw Autumn International Festival of Contemporary Music. This work was radically different, in which he simplified his language and reduced his means of expression. Some hailed him as a genius, others accused him of being a dilettante. The composer would have remained one of the many avantgarde composers "converted" to traditional music, if it had not been for the unusual events of sixteen years later. In 1992, the Third Symphony was first on the American and English bestseller lists, and the entire world was talking about Górecki. This was thanks to the American label Elektra Nonesuch and its recording of the Symphony by the American singer Dawn Upshaw and the London Sinfonietta, conducted by David Zinman. The English radio Classic FM played excerpts from day and night, on request from its listeners. Both classical music lovers and people who had nothing at all in common with classical music listened to it, like young people and long-haul truck drivers. Górecki, with his simple yet fiery music, reached the hearts of them all, revealing the world of the most basic emotions of all.

 

On 12 April 2014 the London Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Andrzej Borejko presented the eagerly anticipated world premiere of Henryk Górecki’s fourth and final symphony. The premiere performance was originally scheduled for 2010 but was postponed due to Górecki’s ill health. At the time of his untimely death in November 2010, the symphony was finished in short score with detailed annotations of orchestration and dynamics.

The full score for symphony orchestra, organ and piano obbligato was completed by Górecki’s son Mikołaj following his father’s instructions.  The full title of the symphony is IV Symfonia: Tansman Epizody (Symphony No.4 Tansman Episodes). The four-part symphony reflects the composer's musical journeys and is a tribute to the Polish composer Aleksander Tansman. As noted Adrian Thomas, a specialist in Górecki’s body of work, the composer did not simply cite Tansman’s music but referred to his chamber music written in the 80s.

Górecki won many awards: in 1967, his Refren (Refrain), op. 21 for orchestra (1965) took third place in the UNESCO International Rostrum of Composers in Paris; in 1968, his Kantata (Cantata), op. 26 for organ (1968) won first prize at the Szczecin Composers' Competition; in 1973, his Ad Matrem, op. 29, for solo soprano, mixed choir and orchestra (1971) won first prize at the UNESCO International Rostrum of Composers in Paris. Górecki also won the Music Award of the Katowice voivodship (1958 and 1975), the award of the Minister of Culture and Art (Third prize, 1965; First prize, 1969 and 1973); the award of the Polish Composers' Union (1970); the award of the Committee for Radio and Television Affairs (1974); the First State Prize (1976); the Award of the Minister of Foreign Affairs (1992). In 1994, Górecki was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Warsaw, the Award of Highest Honor of the Soka University in Tokyo (1996), the Totus Award bestowed by the Foundation of Polish Episcopate of New Millenium (2002), the Music Award of Polish Radio (2003), the Lux ex Silesia Award (2003), Commander's Cross with Star of The Order of Polonia Restituta (2003), the  Pope's Order of Saint George (2009), the Order of White Eagle (2010).

Górecki was awarded the degree honoris causa from the Academy of Catholic Theology in Warsaw  (1993), the University of Warsaw (1994), the Jagiellonian University in Kraków (2000), the Catholic University of Lublin (2004), the Music Academy in Katowice (2004), the Music Academy in Kraków (2008), the Catholic University in Washington, the Michigan University in Ann Arbor,  Victoria University in Victoria and the Royal Victoria College in Montreal.


Compositions:

  • Four Preludes / Cztery preludia, op. 1 for piano (1955)
  • Sonata for piano / Sonata na fortepian, No. 1, op. 6 (1956)
  • Songs of Joy and Rhythm / Pieśni o Radości i Rytmie, op. 7 for 2 pianos and chamber orchestra (1959, rev.1960)
  • Sonata, op. 10 for 2 violins (1957)
  • Concerto for flute, clarinet, trumpet, xylophone, mandolin and string quartet / Koncert na pięć instrumentów i kwartet smyczkowy, op. 11 (1957)
  • Epitaph / Epitafium, op. 12 for mixed choir and instruments (1958)
  • Five Compositions / Pięć utworów, op. 13 for two pianos (1959)
  • Symphony No. 1, op. 14 for strings and percussion (1959)
  • Three Diagrams / Trzy diagramy, op. 15 for solo flute (1959)
  • Monologhi, op. 16 for soprano and three groups of instruments (1960)
  • Scontri (Collisions), op. 17 for orchestra (1960)
  • Diagram IV, op. 18 for flute solo (1961)
  • Genesis I: Elementi / Genesis - I. Elementi per tre archi, op. 19, No. 1 for string trio (1962)
  • Genesis II: Canti strumentali / Genesis - II. Canti strumentali per 15 esecutori, op. 19, No. 2 for 15 players (1962)
  • Genesis III: Monodramma / Genesis - III. Monodramma per soprano, metalli di percussione e sei violbassi, op. 19, No. 3 for soprano, metal percussion and 6 double basses (1963)
  • 3 Pieces in old style / Trzy utwory w dawnym stylu for string orchestra (1963)
  • Choros I / Choros I per strumenti ad arco, op. 20 for strings (1964)
  • Refrain / Refren, op. 21 for orchestra (1965)
  • La Musiquette I (Muzyczka I), op. 22 for 2 trumpets and guitar (1967)
  • La Musiquette II (Muzyczka II), op. 23 for 4 trumpets, 4 trombones, 2 pianos and percussion (1967)
  • Old Polish Music / Muzyka staropolska, op. 24 for brass instruments and strings (1967-1969)
  • La Musiquette III (Muzyczka III), op. 25 for violas (1967)
  • Kantata, op. 26 for organ (1968)
  • Canticum Graduum, op. 27 for orchestra (1969)
  • La Musiquette ,'The Trombone Concerto' / La Musiquette (Muzyczka) 'Koncert puzonowy', op. 28 for clarinet, trombone, cello and piano (1970)
  • Ad Matrem, op. 29 for solo soprano, mixed choir and orchestra (1971)
  • Two Sacred Songs / Dwie pieśni sakralne, op. 30 for solo baritone and orchestra (1971)
  • Symphony No. 2 'Copernican' / Symfonia nr 2 'Kopernikowska', op. 31 for solo soprano and baritone, choir and orchestra (1972)
  • Euntes ibant et flebant, op. 32, for choir a cappella (1972-1973)
  • Amen, op. 35 for choir a cappella (1975)
  • Symphony No. 3 'Symphony of Lamentation Songs' / Symfonia nr 3 'Symfonia pieśni żałosnych', op. 36 for solo soprano and orchestra (1976)
  • Beatus vir, op. 38, psalm for solo baritone, choir and large orchestra (1979)
  • Concerto for harpsichord (or piano), and string orchestra / Koncert na klawesyn (lub fortepian) i orkiestrę smyczkowa, op. 40 (1980)
  • Blessed Raspberry Songs / Błogosławione pieśni malinowe, op. 43 for voice and piano (1980)
  • Miserere, op. 44 for choir a cappella (1981-1987)
  • Two Songs of Juliusz Słowacki / Śpiewy do słów Juliusza Słowackiego, op. 48 for voice and piano (1983)
  • Lerchenmusik / Recitativa i Ariosa 'Lerchenmusik', op. 53 for clarinet, cello and piano (1984-1985)
  • Five Marian Songs / Pieśni maryjne, op. 54 for choir a cappella (1985)
  • O Domina Nostra: Meditations on our Lady of Jasna Góra / O Domina Nostra op. 55 - Medytacje o Jasnogórskiej Pani Naszej, op. 55 for soprano and organ (1982-1985)
  • Under Your Protection: Marian Song / Pod Twoją Obronę, op. 56 for eight-voice mixed choir (1985)
  • Angelus Domini / Na Anioł Pański biją dzwony, op. 57, for mixed choir a capella (1986)
  • For You, Anne-Lill / Dla ciebie, Anne-Lill, op. 58 for flute and piano (1986)
  • Totus Tuus, op. 60 for mixed choir a cappella (1987)
  • Already It is Dusk. String quartet, No. 1 / Już się zmierzcha. Kwartet smyczkowy nr 1, op. 62 (1988)
  • Good Night / Dobranoc, op. 63 for soprano, alto flute, piano and 3 tam-tams (1988-1990)
  • Intermezzo for piano (1990)
  • Quasi una fantasia. String quartet No. 2 / Quasi una fantasia. Kwartet Smyczkowy nr 2, op. 64 (1990-1991)
  • Concerto-cantata, op. 65 for solo flute and orchestra (1991-1992)
  • Małe requiem dla pewnej Polki op. 66 (Kleines Requiem für eine Polka) for piano and thirteen instruments (1993)
  • Piece for string quartet (1993)
  • Trzy fragmenty do słów Stanisława Wyspiańskiego, song cycle for voice and piano (1996)
  • Salve sidus polonorum: Cantata about St. Adalbert / Salve sidus polonorum. Kantata o św. Wojciechu, op. 72 for large mixed choir, two pianos, organ and group of percussion instruments (1997-2000)
  • String Quartet No. 3 / Kwartet smyczkowy nr 3 (1999)
  • Lobgesang for mixed choir and tubular bells (1999)
  • Niech nam żyją i śpiewają for vocal group (2000)
  • Hej, z góry, z góry! koniku bury, five songs from Kurpie region for a cappella choir (2002)
  • ... pieśni śpiewają. String quartet No. 3 op. 67 (1999-2005)
  • Lobgesang op. 76 for mixed choir and glockenspiel (2000)
  • Niech nam żyją i śpiewają / for vocal ensemble (2000)
  • Quasi una fantasia op. 78 for string orchestra (2002)
  • Dla Jasiunia/ For Johnny op. 79, 3 pieces for violin and piano (2003)
  • Po co żeś tu przyszło Siwa Mgło/Why Come Here, Hoary Fog? op. 80, short pieces for two group of violin (2003)
  • Pieśń Rodzin Katyńskich/ Song of Katyń Families op. 81 for mixed choir a cappella (2004)
  • Kyrie op. 83 for choir and chamber orchestra (2004 – 2005)
  • IV Symphony. Tansman Episodes op. 85 for piano, organ and sympvhony orchestra (2006)
  • Sanctus Adalbertus - Oratorium op. 71 for soprano, baritone, mixed choir and orchestra (2010)

Source: Polish Music Information Center, Polish Composers' Union, November 2001; updated: September 2015
 

Culture.pl
Culture.pl
2015/10/06
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Henryk Mikołaj Górecki

Works

Until 1992 Henryk Mikołaj Górecki had remained recognized only by a small group of the contemporary music’s connoisseurs. The situation changed immeasurably when his Third Symphony (the Symphony of Sorrowful Songs) was released by Nonesuch. On the fifth anniversary of the composer’s death the American publisher reminded us about Górecki’s works.Read more about: A Nonesuch Retrospective – Henryk Mikołaj Górecki

Concerto for Harpsichord (or Piano) and String Orchestra Op. 40 was commissioned by the Polish Radio for the Composers Forum, a radio series of presentations of contemporary Polish composers.Read more about: Concerto for Harpsichord - Henryk Mikołaj Górecki

"Symphony No. 3 'Of Sorrowful Songs' " for solo soprano and orchestra caused a lot of excitement when it was first performed in Poland at the 1977 Warsaw Autumn Festival.Read more about: Symphony No. 3 'Of Sorrowful Songs' - Henryk Mikołaj Górecki

Written for string orchestra in response to a friendly charge that his music lacks melody,made by Tadeusz Ochlewski, the then director of the publishing house Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne.Read more about: Three Pieces in an Old Style - Henryk Mikołaj Górecki

Henryk Mikołaj Górecki's "Cantata Salve sidus Polonorum in honour of St Wojciech Op. 72" was written to mark one thousand years of Gniezno and a millenary of death of St Wojciech.Read more about: Cantata in honour of St Wojciech - Henryk Mikołaj Górecki

Beatus vir, a psalm for solo baritone, choir and orchestra, was commissioned by Cardinal Karol Wojtyła for the occasion of the 900th anniversary of the martyr's death of the Cracow bishop Stanisław.Read more about: Beatus vir – Henryk Mikołaj Górecki

Henryk Mikołaj Górecki

Articles

The cover of Silesian Roots, photo: promo materials

Songlines, one of the most important magazines devoted to world music, will showcase the rich Silesian music scene in its April 2016 edition. The included Silesian Roots sampler was created as part of a programme promoting artists associated with Katowice, named a UNESCO City of Music in December 2015. Read more about: Silesian Folk to Conquer the World

Koncert "Stabat Mater" Karola Szymanowskiego pod dyrekcją Vladimira Jurowskiego w Royal Festival Hall, Londyn, 5 marca 2016 , fot. Mariona Vilarós / IAM

The London Philharmonic Orchestra's rendition of Karol Szymanowski's Stabat Mater inaugurated the celebration of the 1,050th anniversary of the baptism of Poland. In attendance was Piotr Gliński, Poland’s Minister of Culture and National Heritage. Read more about: The 1050th Anniversary of the Baptism of Poland Inaugurated in London

Vladimir Jurowski, photo: Thomas Kurek

Vladimir Jurowski, the much sought-after conductor of the London Philharmonic Orchestra, reveals his personal attachment to Szymanowski's Stabat Mater in an exclusive interview with Culture.pl. Read more about: Szymanowski's Stabat Mater Like Michelangelo's Pietà – An Interview with Vladimir Jurowski

Culture.pl presents its guide to the musical events which will resonate in concert halls across Poland this autumn. From the baroque through to the classics of 20th century avant-garde, here are the highlights not to be missed – depending on what you are into: Read more about: From Swans to Górecki: 2014's Musical Autumn

Music and theatre from Poland are presented at Edinburgh's two major record-beating festivals. Scotland hosts showings of Song of the Goat Theatre's Return to the voice project, as well as the I, CULTURE Orchestra which performs at the Edinburgh International Festival. Read more about: I,CULTURE Orchestra and Song of the Goat Theatre Take Edinburgh

Henryk Mikołaj Górecki

Events