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Andrzej Żuławski

Andrzej Żuławski, 2011, fot. Filip Błażejowski/Forum
Andrzej Żuławski, 2011, fot. Filip Błażejowski/Forum

Director, screenwriter, novelist, essayist and actor born in 1940 in Lviv (now Ukraine), died in 2016 in Warsaw.

A non-conformist visionary of world cinema, his approach to storytelling is idiosyncratic and characterised by explosions of violence, sexuality, and despair. The actors in his movies have played out the most intensely high-pitched emotions in cinema history which inspired the French to coin the term 'Żuławskien', meaning 'over the top'. In an interview with Margaret Barton-Fumo, Żuławski describes his films as provoking a certain kind of awareness, nervousness, open-eyed-ness.

Although remaining unclassifiable, the vision of the world portrayed in his films has been described as tragic, shocking and hysterical, Żuławski himself retorts,

I do not make films in order to shock through form. I do not want to shock with things which I would consider to be esthetically, ethically or morally ugly. If there are difficult and brutal things in these films or if the films show a world which is not necessarily pretty or bright, the aim is to go through a tunnel and get to some light. There is a purpose, a method, in it. (...) The films are intended to send in motion the audience' feelings, thoughts, nerves, senses - in every respect.

Polish filmmaker and artist Andrzej Żuławski passed away at the age of 75 on February 17th 2016... Read more about: Andrzej Żuławski's Captivating Cinematic Legacy

Beginnings

Educated in philosophy at the Sorbonne and the IDHEC, in the 1960 after completing his studies, he was second director and assistant to Andrzej Wajda on his films Samson, Miłość Dwudziestolatków (Love at Twenty) and Popioły (The Ashes). Throughout the 1960s Żuławski published film reviews and poems. Son of the writer Mirosław Żuławski and father of the director Xawery Żuławski, his visions are also influenced by his experiences in wartime and communist Poland. His directorial debut were two short films - Pavoncello in 1967 and Pieśń triumfującej miłości (The Song of Triumphant Love) in 1969.

Debut

His first feature length film Trzecia część nocy  (The Third Part of the Night)is a story about the cruelty of war. Based on the experiences of his father who ran experiments on Typhoid Fever infections, the film follows a fugitive who witnesses the murder of his family and enters a crazed world of traps, doubles, disease and death. In 1971, the film provoked considerable excitement.

Still from "Third Part of the Night", 1971. Featuring Krzysztof Fus and Andrzej Kotkowsk, Courtesy of Studio Filmowe Kadr/Filmoteka Narodowa/www.fototeka.fn.org.p
Still from Andrzej Żułąwski's Third Part of the Night, 1971, featuring Krzysztof Fus and Andrzej Kotkowsk, Courtesy of Studio Filmowe Kadr/Filmoteka Narodowa/www.fototeka.fn.org.p

Later Films

The Devil, an extraordinary and highly controversial horror film shot in 1972, premiered only in 1988, because the director was arrested by the communist authorities before the premiere. Żuławski uses tricks which originate from Gothic horrors, blood and gangster films, magnifying and deforming them to the effect of a parody. The story is set in 1793 and a mysterious stranger – the devil – takes Jakub on a journey rich in nightmarish events.

Shot in France in 1976, L'important c'est d'aimer (The Most Important Thing: Love) is a dark film about the world of wasted talent and losers who can be saved only through love. Also in 1976 he was drawn back to Poland to shoot the first Polish Science Fiction film - On the Silver Globe. A space odyssey based on a book by Żuławski's great-uncle, Jerzy Żuławski, it shows a community of Earthians set up on a non-descript planet developing religious rituals. Its production process was stopped in 1978 and Żuławski did not resume it until 1986, when he edited and added sound to the forty-eight surviving parts of the film.

Andrzej Żuławski na planie filmu " Na Srebrnym Globie" według "Trylogii księżycowej" Jerzego Żuławskiego, 1978, fot. Tomek Sikora / Forum
Andrzej Żuławski on the set of  On the Silver Globe based on The Lunar Trilogy by Jerzy Żuławski, 1978, photo: Tomek Sikora / Forum

After losing his right to work in Poland at the end of the 1970s and his marriage to Małgorzata Braunek fell apart, he went to New York with the aim of committing suicide. Andy Warhol talked him out of it and within ten days, in 1981, Żuławski wrote the screenplay for Possession – the film for which he is best known, especially in the US. A portrait of a marriage in painful dissolution, 'Possession is a cry, a long howl from the depths of the soul, which gets relieved - when least expected - as a result of peace and quiet' says cinema expert Max Tessier. As Wall Street Journal's Kristin M. Jones puts it, 'Like movies by David Lynch or Roman Polański, Mr. Żuławski's work addresses love, madness and troubled relationships, but his approach to storytelling and his cosmology of personal, political and biblical allusions are all his own.' His fondness for the use of recurring themes, details and doppelgangers across multiple films as well as sudden intrusions of humor in the most horrific scenes becomes very apparent in Possession.

After Possession, the director staged many more films, such as La femme publique (The Public Woman) in 1984 about a young actress oppressed and bewildered by the indoctrination and sexual domination techniques of the eccentric director in whose film she is playing. In 1991 he made La note bleue (Blue Note) about Chopin’s love for George Sand dying down and his inspiration slowly drifting away. Sand calls the last note which he writes 'blue'. Polish critic Tomasz Jopkiewicz observes, 'Żuławski has created a world of bazaar-like apocalypse; a world of spectacular, picturesque disintegration, of decadent breaking of all ethical standards; a world brainwashed by evil'.

Szamanka  (The Shaman,1996) is the story of a complicated love relationship between an emotionally damaged anthropology professor and a deranged or supernatural 'Italian', and an obsession with the body of a perfectly preserved 3,000-year-old shaman. Considered one of the most controversial films ever produced in Poland, SFBG’s Dennis Harvey comments,

Reviled in Poland, barely glimpsed elsewhere, the 1996 film was notorious before it was finished, with Żuławski accused of wildly mistreating 20-year-old 'discovery' Petry. She refused to comment, but immediately abandoned acting and reportedly sought spiritual succor in India. Even the sturdier Adjani said it took her years to get over making Possession. What to say about a director who drives actors over the brink? Only that the emotions — as is sometimes said of the millions spent on lavish productions — are all right up there on screen.

Fidélité, a  2000 French drama based on Madame de La Fayette's seventeenth century novel La Princesse de Clèves is about a talented photographer who lands a lucrative job in Paris with a scandal-mongering tabloid and becomes romantically involved with an eccentric children's book publisher while resisting the sexual advances of another photographer. Filmed on location in Paris, Fidelity received the Cabourg Romantic Film Festival Award for Best Actress (Sophie Marceau) and the Golden Swann Award (Andrzej Żuławski).

After 15 year-long break, Żuławski returned to directing with a feature described as a 'metaphysical thriller noir' and based on Witold Gombrowicz’s last novel Cosmos (1965). Considered a masterpiece and the most enigmatic work in Gombrowicz’s oeuvre, Cosmos remains a challenge to interpret. Set in Poland in the 1930’s, the novel follows a quasi-detective plot, which has the narrator, a student from Warsaw on vacation in Zakopane, investigate a series of signs and symbols. This brings him ever closer to madness and destruction of the self. The film premiered in competition at the Locarno International Film Festival, where it won the award for Best Direction.

 

 

Cosmos comes two years after the publication of Kronos - the intimate and scadalizing diary of Witold Gombrowicz. However, anyone expecting another scandalous and frantically hysteric work, of the kind which made Żuławski's fame years ago, may be disappointed.

Listed among the most anticipated films of 2015, Andrzej Żuławski’s Cosmos is now in post-... Read more about: Żuławski Recreates Gombrowicz's Cosmos on Film

Żuławski as Actor

Authoring 20 books, Żuławski has appeared in a few feature films, including Andrzej Wajda’s Samson, Joy Fleury’s Sadness and Beauty and the TV mini series by Josée Dayan Dangerous Liaisons. His life and person is illustrated in several documentaries: Melancholy: a portrait of Andrzej Żuławski (1994, a joint Polish and Belgian production, dir. Sylvie Guedel), Żuławski on Żuławski (2004, by Jakub Skoczeń).

Filmography:

  • 1967 - Pavoncello
  • 1967 - Pieśń triumfującej miłości / The Story of Triumphant Love
  • 1971 - Trzecia część nocy / The Third Part of the Night
  • 1972 - Diabeł / The Devil (premiered in 1988)
  • 1976 - L'important c'est d'aimer / The Most Important Thing: Love
  • 1981 - Possession
  • 1984 - La femme publique
  • 1985 - L'amour braque
  • 1987 - Na Srebrnym Globie / On the Silver Globe. 
  • 1989 - Boris Godunov
  • 1989 - Mes nuits sont plus belles que vos jours / My Nights Are More Beautiful Than Your Days
  • 1990 - La note bleue / Blue Note
  • 1996 - Szamanka/The Shaman
  • 2000 - La fidélité/Fidelity
  • 2015 - Cosmos

Awards:

  • 2015 - Best Direction Award at the Locarno International Film Festival
  • 2008 - Lifetime Achievement Award to a Director with a Great Esthetic Sensitivity at the 16th Camerimage Festival
  • 2002 - French Legion of Honour
  • 2001 - Poland's Commander's Cross of the Order of Rebirth
  • 1984 - Special Jury Award at the Montreal International Film Festival for La Femme Publique
  • 1981 - Best Director at the Sao Paulo International Film Festival
  • 1981 -  Golden Asteroid at the Trieste International Sci-Fi Film Festival for Possession
  • 1972 - Diploma of Recognition at the Adelaide Film Festival for Third Part of the Night

Sources: SFBG, Filmcomment, The Wall Street Journal

Author: Halina Olczak-Moraczewska, August 2004, updated February 2016

 
Marta Jazowska
Marta Jazowska
2016/07/21

Andrzej Żuławski

Works

Still from Andrzej Żuławski's Cosmos, photo: Alfama Films

By adapting Witold Gombrowicz’s Cosmos Andrzej Żuławski proved his position as the most courageous and uncompromising Polish film director. A humourous and perverse film serves as a great conclusion of the director’s film career.Read more about: Cosmos – Andrzej Żuławski

A still from The Third Part of the Night directed by Andrzej Żuławski, 1971. On the photo: Małgorzata Braunek., photo: Studio Filmowe Kadr/Filmoteka Narodowa/www.fototeka.fn.org.pl

Andrzej Żuławski’s feature debut, made in 1971. When it premiered, it was accused of kitsch and compared to Mniszkówna’s prose, but from today’s perspective it seems one of the most innovative films of its time.Read more about: The Third Part of the Night – Andrzej Żuławski

Andrzej Żuławski

Multimedia

Andrzej Żuławski

Articles

Andrzej Żuławski, 2011, photo: Filip Błażejowski/Forum

Polish filmmaker and artist Andrzej Żuławski passed away at the age of 75 on February 17th 2016. The Polish film director, who has also written screenplays, essays and novels, was internationally renowned as an uncompromising visionary. Read more about: Andrzej Żuławski's Captivating Cinematic Legacy

Jonathan Genet in Andrzej Żuławski’s film Cosmos, photo: press materials

Andrzej Żuławski has been awarded the best director prize at the 68th edition of the Locarno International Film Festival. Awards were also bestowed upon Wojciech Staroń for the documentary Brothers, and Karolina Bielawska for Call Me Marianna. Read more about: Three Poles Win Big at Locarno Film Festival

Still from Rosemary's Baby, dir. Roman Polański, 1968, photo: Polfilm / East News

If you like to get scared you’ve got the right country. Classic Polish-directed horrors as shown, for instance, by Rosemary’s Baby will send shivers down your spine and leave you wanting more. Below you can find Culture.pl’s selection of 8 such movies, which have the potential to creep you out. Read more about: 8 Classic Polish-Directed Horrors You Need to Know

Listed among the most anticipated films of 2015, Andrzej Żuławski’s Cosmos is now in post-production. The film will most probably be ready for the Cannes Festival in May. Read more about: Żuławski Recreates Gombrowicz's Cosmos on Film

Polish poster for Roman Polański's "Rosemary's Baby", source: Museum of Cinematography in Łódź

There is a dark side to the Polish soul. This top 10 iconic spine-chilling soundtracks shows without a doubt that Poland's composers are undisputed masters of music more nightmarish than Polish spelling itself. Read more about: Top 10 Creepiest Soundtracks by Polish Composers

Culture.pl presents DVDs of Polish films available with English subtitles. Read more about: Polish Films on DVD with English Subtitles

Andrzej Żuławski

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