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The Ringelblum Archive, known also as the Underground Archive of the Warsaw Ghetto, is a cache of materials and documents, collected and preserved during World War II in the Warsaw Ghetto by a group of scholars and intellectuals, known as Oyneg Shabes (alternative spellings: Oneg Shabbat, Oyneg Shabbos). Written in Yiddish and Polish, and currently stored at the Emanuel Ringelblum Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw, the archive contains approximately 6,000 documents (about 35,000 pages) and is listed on the Memory of the World Register by UNESCO. Find out more: 8 Facts You Should Know...

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Three of the nine metal boxes and two milk cans which contained the Ringelblum Archive, photo: Wikimedia

What is the Ringelblum Archive? How did it survive World War II? And why do we need to constantly reassess its importance? Here are the most important facts you need to know about one of the world’s greatest monuments to human resistance and heroism in the face of ultimate evil.

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Jan Czochralski in the office at the Warsaw University of Technology, photo taken probably after Poland occupied by the Germans, photo: Forum

In 1916, Polish scientist Jan Czochralski devised something fundamental to today’s electronic devices. Even though this discovery secured him a place among the scientific greats, for decades his name was shrouded in obscurity in his homeland. He was even accused of collaborating with Poland’s wartime enemies, despite working for the resistance.

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Born in Independent Poland. Lahestaniha. The Children of Esfahan Back in Iran After 75 Years, photo: Abolqasem Jala

The Born in Independent Poland. Lahestaniha. The Children of Esfahan Back in Iran After 75 Years exhibition looks at the story of Polish refugees in Iran during World War II. The exhibition will present an extraordinary collection of negatives from the studio of Abolqasem Jala, which were discovered half a century after the end of the war.

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The Born in Independent Poland. Lahestaniha. The Children of Esfahan Back in Iran After 75 Years exhibition looks at the story of Polish refugees in Iran during World War II. The exhibition will present an extraordinary collection of negatives from the studio of Abolqasem Jala, which were discovered half a century after the end of the war.

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A screenshot from Enemy Front, CI Games studio, photo: manufacturer’s press materials

Historical motifs have appeared in board and computer games for a long time. Creators, fans and researchers of games quickly began noticing that this interactive form of historiography has many distinctive qualities, ranging from the players’ deep engagement in the story and action, to the possibility of exploring alternative paths of the past.

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Three women potato-lifting. In the background we see the Camaldolese Church in Warsaw's Bielany, 1941, Wydawnictwo Prasowe Kraków-Warszawa, photo: www.audiovis.nac.gov.pl (NAC)

Ziemniak, pyra, kartofel… If there’s one ingredient that best represents Polish cuisine, it’s definitely the potato. Nutritious and versatile, it has also been our constant companion during the hardships of poverty and war.

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Firestorm cloud over Hiroshima, 6th August 1945, photo: Wikipedia

When the US dropped nuclear bombs on Japan at the end of WWII, one man in particular was affected by the death and destruction. Having helped create the weapon, he dedicated the rest of his life to prevent it from ever being used again. What can we learn from the Nobel Prize-winning life of Józef Rotblat?

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Gabi and Uwe von Seltmann, photo: Yuri Drug

The pair travels around the world and speaks about the necessity of knowing your own history and the ability to forgive. Nearly ten thousand people have attended Gabi and Uwe’s lectures and the book about their story and the lives of their ancestors has become a best-seller.

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Anu Radha, photo: Aakaar Films

During World War II, thousands of Poles fled their country and sought refuge around the world. One of the first countries to help was India, starting with the so-called ‘Good Maharaja’ Jam Saheb, who took in many Polish orphans. Now a feature film is in the works to concentrate on another story from this dramatic period of history.

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Amongst all the controversial figures of the first half of the 20th century, one man stands out. Allegedly a quadruple agent, a lord of Freemasonry, a Catholic Jew, a clandestine communist, and a persevering Polish patriot.

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The girls from the settlement in Valivade, India, from 1943 to 1948, photo: press materials

The Polish History Museum has prepared an exhibition on the Google Cultural Institute's website which shows the fortunes of Polish refugees in World War II.

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Czesław Słania, photo: Woody Ochnio/Forum

Best-known as a post stamp creator, Czesław Słania mastered engraving to perfection and could make stunning miniatures less than a few millimetres tall. This unusual ability allowed him to perform an invaluable service for the anti-Nazi resistance in Poland.

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Lucyna Winnicka in The Real End of the Great War, directed by Jerzy Kawalerowicz, 1957, photo: ​Andrzej Gronau/Studio Filmowe Kadr / www.fototeka.fn.org.pl

The Real End of the Great War is a 1957 film by Jerzy Kawalerowicz, based on a short story by Jerzy Zawieyski. In the period when he was still looking for his own style and hadn’t made his greatest works yet, Kawalerowicz created an expressive film, much different from his later, formally ascetic works.

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​Krystyna Skarbek, photo: www.youtube.com/watch?v=3yNoGCSGX6M​

If you were to read only one story of a wartime hero in your life, you should seriously consider this one – the story of a Polish-Jewish countess, a woman way ahead of her time, Winston Churchill’s favourite, and one of the most successful spies in the history of espionage.

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Photograph from the album Gulag by Tomasz Kizny, photo: courtesy of IPN

Leicestershire Council has recently made public the recorded memories of the Poles and their families living in the county. Why have Poles been living there for over 60 years now? Would you believe that people who were deported to Siberia faced even worse hardship after the war?

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Niemiecki pociąg pancerny z 1944 r., fot. Tomasz Wiech / Agencja Gazeta

Piotr Żuchowski, Head of Conservation at the Polish Ministry of Culture, has confirmed the existence of the mysterious WWII train recently found in the city of Wałbrzych, and has also revealed that everything seems to indicate a precious cargo.

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Archive of New Records / Forum

During the Warsaw Uprising and the period immediately after, as Germany methodically destroyed the city, it also decimated the Polish archives. An estimated 40km of shelves of valuable documents were lost.

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Polish transatlantic liner en route  from Gdynia to America, photo FoKa / Forum

- It sailed for 36 years. Ships don't usually sail that long, but the MS Batory was unique - writes Bożena Aksamit in her historic reportage about the most famous Polish trans-Atlantic liner, pride of the Second Republic, living art, and the only representation of a free Poland during the war.

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